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Том 8. Експедиції М. Береговського, 1936-1939 рр., до єврейських сільськогосподарських колоній Південної України

 


У 1936 році Мойсей Береговський почав збирати єврейський музичний фольклор в єврейських сільськогосподарських колоніях Південної України.     Вибрані записи з експедиції 1936 р. в Калініндорф, які представлені на цьому CD, демонструють чіткий наголос на певних жанрах єврейського музичного фольклору, висвітлюючи позитивну сторону єврейського життя в колгоспі та творчість його працівників через нові антирелігійні та антисіоністські сатиричні пісні, пісні про щасливу працю в колгоспі, частушки, радісні весільні пісні та клезмерські мелодії. Були також включені ліричні пісні, але вони були представлені як єдине цінне з'єднання з минулим. Пісні з традиційним релігійним змістом не реєструвалися.



1. Fragmentn fun Akhashveyresh-shpil 3:46
Fragments from the Akhashveyresh-shpil (beginning). A guter ovnt, a guter ovnt, mayne libe harn. Good evening, good evening, my dear herren. Performed by Yudl Vinov, 50, collective farm worker, born in Romanovka, Bereznevatsky district, Kherson region, into the family of a colonist. The performer used to play a role of Akhashveyresh in this purimshpil until 1905. Recorded at the collective farm “Arbet” (“Work”), the Molotov village council, Kalinindorf district, on October 24, 1938. Cylinder # 1037.

2. Fragmentn fun Akhashveyresh-shpil 4:05
Fragments from the Akhashveyresh-shpil (continuation). Vashti’s lament: Oy, okh, vind un okh vey, [vos fara natsaytung hob ikh geton hern]. Oh, poor me, what news did I have to hear. Performed by Yudl Vinov, 50, collective farm worker, born in Romanovka, Bereznevatsky district, Kherson region, into the family of a colonist. The performer used to play a role of Akhashveyresh in this purimshpil until 1905. Recorded at the collective farm “Arbet” (“Work”), the Molotov village council, Kalinindorf district, on October 24, 1938. Cylinder # 1038.

3. Fragmentn fun Akhashveyresh-shpil 3:04
Fragments from the Akhashveyresh-shpil (continuation). Dialog between Aman and Vashti: Oy, kiniglekhe Vashti, leyg zikh anider, [makh zhe dayne oygn tsu]. Oh, little queen Vashti, lay down, [close your eyes]. Dialog between Aman and Vashti. Performed by Yudl Vinov, 50, collective farm worker, born in Romanovka, Bereznevatsky district, Kherson region, into the family of a colonist. The performer used to play a role of Akhashveyresh in this purimshpil until 1905. Recorded at the collective farm “Arbet” (“Work”), the Molotov village council, Kalinindorf district, on October 24, 1938. Cylinder # 1039/1..

4. Fragment fun Yosef-shpil 1:16
Fragment from the Yosef-shpil. Gloybt iz got mit zayne zakhn. God is glorified in all. Yankev’s song with choir (epilog of the purimshpil). Performed by Berl Rezin [Rosin], 56, collective farm worker, former colonist. This play was performed in Shterndorf (former Malaia Seideminukha) by colonists from Bobrovyi Kut in 1896-1898. Recorded in Shterndorf on October 29, 1938. Cylinder # 1039/2.

5.Fragment fun Yosef-shpil 2:28
Fragment from the Yosef-shpil. Mit groys shrek un mit groys tsorn. With much fear and sadness. Yosef performs this song while sitting in the hole. Performed by Berl Rezin [Rosin], 56, collective farm worker, former colonist. This play was performed in Shterndorf (former Malaia Seideminukha) by colonists from Bobrovyi Kut in 1896-1898. Recorded in Shterndorf on October 29, 1938. Cylinder # 1040/1.

6. Fragment fun Yosef-shpil 1:32
Fragment from the Yosef-shpil. Brider Yosef, nem zikh on far dizn shtrik mit dayne hent. Brother Yosef, take the rope with your hands. Scene between Yosef’s brothers and Yosef. The brothers are getting Yosef out of the hole. Performed by Berl Rezin [Rosin], 56, collective farm worker, former colonist. This play was performed in Shterndorf (former Malaia Seideminukha) by colonists from Bobrovyi Kut in 1896-1898. Recorded in Shterndorf on October 29, 1938. Cylinder # 1040/2.

7.Fragment fun Yosef-shpil 0:47
Fragment from the Yosef-shpil. Ikh bin der boym fun der gantser velt. I am a tree of the entire world. Yankev’s song. Performed by Berl Rezin [Rosin], 56, collective farm worker, former colonist. This play was performed in Shterndorf (former Malaia Seideminukha) by colonists from Bobrovyi Kut in 1896-1898. Recorded in Shterndorf on October 30, 1938. Cylinder # 1041/1.

8.Fragment fun Yosef-shpil 1:51
Fragment from the Yosef-shpil. Oy, briderlekh mayne getraye n’greyste. Oh, my brothers, dear and precious. Yosef’s song-lament and his brothers’ responses. Performed by Berl Rezin [Rosin], 56, collective farm worker, former colonist. This play was performed in Shterndorf (former Malaia Seideminukha) by colonists from Bobrovyi Kut in 1896-1898. Recorded in Shterndorf on October 30, 1938. Cylinder # 1041/2.

9.Fragment fun Yosef-shpil 0:57
Fragment from the Yosef-shpil. Muter, muter, muter Rokhl! Mother, mother, mother Rokhl! Yosef’s song-lament on Rokhl’s grave. Performed by Berl Rezin [Rosin], 56, collective farm worker, former colonist. This play was performed in Shterndorf (former Malaia Seideminukha) by colonists from Bobrovyi Kut in 1896-1898. Recorded in Shterndorf on October 30, 1938. Cylinder # 1041/3.

10. Fragment fun Yosef-shpil 4:14
Fragmentn from the Yosef-shpil. Fragment 1. Dino, shvester getraye, treyst dem foter fun zayn leyd. Dina, dear sister, soothe your father’s sufferings. Yosef is asking Dina to comfort Yankev in his desperate search for Yosef. Fragment 2. Oy, mayn harts, mayn harts tsit tsu dir. Oh, my heart is longing for you. Zlikho, pharaoh’s wife, is trying to allure Yosef with her charms. Performed by Berl Rezin [Rosin], 56, collective farm worker, former colonist. This play was performed in Shterndorf (former Malaia Seideminukha) by colonists from Bobrovyi Kut in 1896-1898. Recorded in Shterndorf on October 30, 1938. Cylinder # 1043.

11. Fragment fun Yosef-shpil 2:07
Fragments from the Yosef-shpil. [Mit groys tsar un mit groys tsorn.] [With great sorrow and longing]. Yosef’s song performed while sitting in the hole. Performed by K. Fesachina. Recorded in Kalinindorf on November 2, 1938. Cylinder # 1044/2.

12.Fragment fun Yosef-shpil 0:24
Fragments from the Yosef-shpil. Performed by K. Fesachina. Recorded in Kalinindorf on November 2, 1938. Cylinder # 1044/3.

13.Akhashveyresh-shpil 4:37
The Akhashverosh-shpil. Several fragments (scenes) follow one another without interruption. Fragment 1. Song of a messenger: Unter maynem sheynem lufer lozt mikh heron ober in on. [Please let me in.] Introduction. Fragment 2. Song of a chancellor announcing appearance of Haman: Eyf dizun zayt tir shteyt a braver kavaler. A brave cavalier is standing at the other side of the door. Fragment 3. Haman’s recitative: Al dahir gey ikh shprints minister kavaler Heymon mit mayne kluge rotn. And here I come, prince minister cavalier Haman, with my smart troops. Performed by Pinya Lundin, 60, old colonist. The performer frequently played different parts of this purimshpil in his childhood years in Ingulets. Recorded in Ingulets on May 22, 1939. Cylinder # 1050.

14.Akhashveyresh-shpil 4:47
The Akhashverosh-shpil. Continuation (beginning on the cylinder #1050). Several fragments (scenes) follow one another without interruption. Fragment 1. Dem kinig arayntsufirn. Bring in the king. Ceremony of welcoming the king Akhashverosh (choir and Mordkhe). Fragment 2. Recitatives by Akhashverosh and Haman. Fragment 3. Vashti’s song-lamentation asking the King Akhashverosh to have mercy on her: Oy, keyzerlekhe kroyn. Oh, the King’s crown. Vashti’s song is followed by recitatives of Haman, Chancellor, and the King Akhashverosh. Performed by Pinya Lundin, 60, old colonist. The performer frequently played different parts of this purimshpil in his childhood years in Ingulets. Recorded in Ingulets on May 22, 1939. Cylinder # 1051.

15. Akhashveyresh-shpil 4:41
The Akhashverosh-shpil. Continuation (beginning is on the cylinders #1050-1051). Several fragments (scenes) follow one another without interruption. Fragment 1. Haman’s recitative Oy, der groyser Amolek. Oh, the great Amalek. The recitative follows Haman’s dialog with Chancellor about when and how the Jews should be executed. Fragment 2. Mordecai is begging Esther to convince the King Akhashverosh to cancel the order to kill the Jews: Vi azoy zol ikh nit veynen un shrayen. How can I not cry and scream. Performed by Pinya Lundin, 60, old colonist. The performer frequently played different parts of this purimshpil in his childhood years in Ingulets. Recorded in Ingulets on May 22, 1939. Cylinder # 1057.

16.Akhashveyresh-shpil 4:01
The Akhashverosh-shpil. Continuation (beginning is on the cylinders #1050-1051, see also # 1057). Several fragments (scenes) follow one another without interruption. Fragment 1. Haman’s recitatives and songs before heading to the gallows: Nor dos iz mir alts gekumen durkh mayne hure layt. All that has happened to me because of my dissolute people. Fragment 2. Atsind vel ikh zikh fun mayn zun Parshandoso opkern. Now I’m going to turn my back on my son Parshandoso. Fragment 3. Final choral song: Oy, oyro le-Mordekhay, afeylo le-Homon. Oh, light for Mordecai, darkness for Haman”. Performed by Pinya Lundin, 60, old colonist. The performer frequently played different parts of this purimshpil in his childhood years in Ingulets. Recorded in Ingulets on May 22, 1939. Cylinder # 1062.

17.Akeydes Yitskhok 3:59
The Binding of Isaac. Prolog and scenes from the 1st act (fragments). Prolog, introduction by a jester: Ikh, payats, tu hir arayngeyn. I, jester, am entering here. Scene 1, Avrom’s song: Ikh bin der Avrom, di boym fun der velt. I am Avrom, the tree of the world. Scene 2, the angel’s song: Avrom, du Avrom, mayn balibster man. Abraham, you Abraham, my favorite man. Scene 3, Abraham’s song for Sarah before setting off on a road: Mayn balibte froy Sara, bahitn zolstu nikh fun ayn tsore. My dear wife Sarah, you shall protect me from one misfortune. Scene 4, the field-marshal’s introduction of the king Abimelech and Abimelech’s song: Yetst, mayne libe laytn, mir zenen ale ufgevakht. Now, my dear people, the wait is over. Ikh bin der Avimelekh, der kinig fun Gror. I am Abimelech, the king of Gerar. Performed by Sholem Khaykin, 60, head of the post office in Ingulets, former teacher. He learned this version of the purimshpil in 1895 during his studies in the yeshiva in Poddobrianka, Mogilev province. Recorded in Ingulets on May 22, 1939. Cylinder # 1063.

18. Akeydes Yitskhok 2:37
The Binding of Isaac. Continuation (see cylinder # 1063). Scenes from the 1st and 2nd acts (fragments). Scene 8 from the 1st act, Sarah’s song for the king Abimelech: Foter kinig, ikh tu shprakhn in dayn rot. Father King, I’m speaking [to you]. Scene 10 from the 1st act, Abraham’s song addressing three angels: Nekhtikn tog un hayntikn tog bin ikh in groys tsar gezesn. Yesterday and today I was sitting in great sorrow. Scene 1 from the 2nd act, brief introduction by the jester followed by Isaac’s song: Mayn foter Avrom hot a sakh tsayt gevart. My father Abraham had been waiting for a long time. Performed by Sholem Khaykin, 60, head of the post office in Ingulets, former teacher. He learned this version of the purimshpil in 1895 during his studies in the yeshiva in Poddobrianka, Mogilev province. Recorded in Ingulets on May 22, 1939. Cylinder # 1064.
19. Akeydes Yitskhok 4:01
The Binding of Isaac. Continuation (see cylinders ## 1063 and 1964). Scenes from the 2nd and 3rd acts (fragments). Scene 6 from the 2nd act, song of Hagar, Ishmael’s mother, addressing Abraham: Farnem mayn geveyn mit mayn gebet. Hear my lament and my prayer. Scene 7 from the 2nd act, dialog between Hagar and Ishmael: Shtey oyf, shtey oyf, mayn lib kind. Get up, get up, my dear child. Ishmael’s song: Kol hayes un oyfes tuen arum mir tsu shteyn. All animals and birds are around me. Scene 2 from the 3rd act, Abraham’s response to the angel requesting him to bring Isaac’s to the slaughter: Okh, dayne reyd hob ikh banumen in zinen. Oh, I understood your words. Performed by Sholem Khaykin, 60, head of the post office in Ingulets, former teacher. He learned this version of the purimshpil in 1895 during his studies in the yeshiva in Poddobrianka, Mogilev province. Recorded in Ingulets on May 22, 1939. Cylinder # 1065.

20.Akhashveyresh-shpil 2:04
The Akhashverosh-shpil. Fragments from different scenes follow one another without interruption. Scene 7 from the 1st act, Vashti’s song-lament (fragment): Oy, az okh un vey iz mir un mayne yorn. Oh, woe to my years. Scene 1 from the 2nd act, King Akhashverosh’s song-repentance about killing Vashti (fragment): Az okh on vey un vind iz mir un mayne yorn, az ikh hob aza patret tsum toyt dershlogn. Woe and pain to me and to my years that I killed such portrait (beauty). Fragment from the 3rd act, Haman’s song before execution: Okh, vos iz mir di pule fun mayne domen un kromen. Oh, what is [the value] of my houses and stores. Performed by Sholem Khaykin, 60, head of the post office in Ingulets, former teacher. The performer learned this version of the purimshpil in Orlovka, Cherknigov province, in 1882-1883. He used to play roles of Vashti and Esther. Recorded in Ingulets on May 22, 1939. Cylinder # 1068..

21.Akhashveyresh-shpil 0:47
The Akhashverosh-shpil. Scene 3 from the 2nd act. Dialog between Homon and chancellor about selecting the day of the week for destruction of Jewish people: [Drum, kantsler, lomir gral oysvarfn] dem ershtn tog zuntik kumen mir aroys! [Drum, Chancellor…], the first day Sunday we will come out! Performed by Sholem Khaykin, 60, head of the post office in Ingulets, former teacher. The performer learned this version of the purimshpil in Orlovka, Cherknigov province, in 1882-1883. He used to play roles of Vashti and Esther. Recorded in Ingulets on May 22, 1939. Cylinder # 1070/1.

22. Geboyrn bin ikh in tsores un in laydn [un farvorfn in yomer un in klog, oy vey]
I was born with pain and sufferings [and thrown into lamentation and wailing]. Song of a wanderer, from repertoire of the street beggars. Performed by Yeshaya Khazan, 74. The performer memorized the song in Novozhitomir from older people. Recorded in Krasnyi Pod on May 25, 1939. Cylinder # 1070/2.

23.Okh, mentshn, nemt aykh arop a muser [fun mir, Gadi Soykher] 2:34
Oh, people, learn the moral from my experience, [from me, Gadi Soykher]. Song of a blind street beggar. Performed by Yeshaya Khazan, 74. The performer memorized the song in Novozhitomir from older people. Recorded in Krasnyi Pod on May 25, 1939. # 1070/3.

24.Me hot mikh tsum bretl geshtelt, [di mos hob ikh akratne gekhapt] 1:28
I was asked to stand against a measuring board, [I took measurements precisely]. A song about military draft (monolog of a Jewish soldier with reference to metaphoric “wedding in barracks”). Performed by Avrom-Ber Kukoy, 51, old colonist, former shoemaker. Recorded in Ingulets on May 23, 1939. Cylinder # 1071/1.
Dobranitsh (Pedotser) 2:39
25.In droysn triknt shoyn oys, [di levone, zi tut avekshvebn] 2:15
The outside was drying out, [the moon was floating in the air]. Love song (with references to impossible requests for the groom typical for pre-wedding songs, such as “counting all stars in the sky”). Performed by Avrom-Ber Kukoy, 51, old colonist, former shoemaker. Recorded in Ingulets on May 23, 1939. Cylinder # 1071/2.

26. Es helft dokh nit keyn bronfn un nit keyn shpirt, [di falshe libe, zi hot mikh farfirt] 1:02
Vodka and liquor are of no help, [the false love, it made me suffer]. Love song (about “false love”). Performed by Avrom-Ber Kukoy, 51, old colonist, former shoemaker. Recorded in Ingulets on May 23, 1939. Cylinder # 1071/3.
27.A yor nokh mayn khasene, [zet, vi ikh vayz oys] 1:22
A year after my wedding, see how I Iook like. Song of a young woman complaining about her married life and husband. Performed by Avrom-Ber Kukoy, 51, old colonist, former shoemaker. Recorded in Ingulets on May 23, 1939. Cylinder # 1072/1.

28. Oy, vu bistu, vu bistu, mame mayne, [vu bistu farvorfn azoy vayt] 1:47
Oh, where are you, my mother, [where are you, thrown so far away]. Song of an orphan, from repertoire of the street beggars. Performed by Avrom-Ber Kukoy, 51, old colonist, former shoemaker. Recorded in Ingulets on May 23, 1939. Cylinder # 1072/2.