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Том 7. Експедиції М. Береговського, 1936-1939 рр., до єврейських сільськогосподарських колоній Південної України

У 1936 році Мойсей Береговський почав збирати єврейський музичний фольклор в єврейських сільськогосподарських колоніях Південної України.     Вибрані записи з експедиції 1936 р. в Калініндорф, які представлені на цьому CD, демонструють чіткий наголос на певних жанрах єврейського музичного фольклору, висвітлюючи позитивну сторону єврейського життя в колгоспі та творчість його працівників через нові антирелігійні та антисіоністські сатиричні пісні, пісні про щасливу працю в колгоспі, частушки, радісні весільні пісні та клезмерські мелодії. Були також включені ліричні пісні, але вони були представлені як єдине цінне з'єднання з минулим. Пісні з традиційним релігійним змістом не реєструвалися.



1. Sher 0:54
A klezmer dance melody recorded from voice. Performed by Dvoira Ozyrianski. Recorded in Bobrovyi Kut on January 15, 1936. Cylinder # 913/1.

2. Sher 1:03
A klezmer dance melody recorded from voice. Performed by Dvoira Ozyrianski. Recorded in Bobrovyi Kut on January 15, 1936. Cylinder # 913/2.

3. Geven bay mir a sheyne blum, [grine bleter iz oyf im geven] 0:28
I had a beautiful flower, [with green leaves]. A love song about separation with a dear one. Performed by Zhenia Pisarenko. Recorded in Bobrovyi Kut on January 16, 1936. Cylinder # 918/3.

4. Fir kashes 1:14
Four questions. Oy vey, tate, kh’vel dikh fregn fir kashes. Oh vey, father, I’ll ask you four questions. A new interpretation of the traditional Passover song “Mah nishtanah” with emphasis on social inequality. Performed by Moyshe Podvalner, 35, student of the tractor training courses. Recorded in Bobrovyi Kut on January 16, 1936. Cylinder # 921/2.

5.Bulgar 0:26
A dance from klezmer repertoire recorded from voice. Performed by Litvak (male voice). Recorded in Bobrovyi Kut on January 16, 1936. Cyl. # 921/3.

6. Az men shraybt a briv, [shraybt men oyf papir] (tshastushkes) 0:42
When someone writes a letter, [he writes it on paper] (couplets). Greetings to the leaders of kolkhoz. Performed by Chaim Perlov, student of the tractor training courses. Recorded in Bobrovyi Kut on January 16, 1936. Cylinder # 922/3.

7.Ikh bin a yat fun yatn-land, [ir kent mikh ale, mistame] 1:28
I am a good fellow, [you all probably know me]. Anti-Zionist song about advantages of the Kherson agricultural colonies over the Palestinian ones. Performed by Mikhail Leviant, 20, student of the tractor training courses. Recorded in Bobrovyi Kut on January 16, 1936. Cylinder # 922/4.

8. S’hot gelebt amol a rebe, ay-ay-ay, [hot er gelernt mit undz kabole, ay-ay-ay]
Once there was a Rabbi, [he was teaching us Kabbalah]. Anti-religious song. Performed by Moyshe Podvalner, 35, student of the tractor training courses. Recorded in Bobrovyi Kut on January 16, 1936. Cylinder # 922/5.

9.Zitst a meydele farn toyer, [un tsilet a shnur kareln] 0:37
A girl is sitting at the gates, [and is stringing coral beads]. A pre-wedding song in the form of dialog between bride and groom about bride’s dowry. Performed by Khasya Dinevitsh, 23, collective farmer. She learned the song from her grandmother Feygi Tshausovski, 85, old colony farmer, who remembered the song since 1860. Recorded in Bobrovyi Kut on January 16, 1936. Cylinder # 923/1.

10. A nign 1:20
A tune. Performed by Moyshe Taflinski. Recorded in Fraylebn on January 20, 1936. Cylinder # 938/1.

11. A korenem broyt kukn mir nit on, [nor veytsenem viln mir pikn] 0:32
We are not looking at the rye bread anymore, [we only want to pick the wheat bread now]. Song about prosperous life in the kolkhoz. Performed by Moyshe Taflinski. Recorded in Fraylebn on January 20, 1936. Cylinder # 938/2.

12.Khersoner ibervanderer 1:03
Kherson settlers. Song of Jewish colonists. Performed by Tanya Shtotler. Recorded in Fraylebn, collective farm “Smidovitsh”, on January 23, 1936. Cylinder # 939/1.

13.Fertsik mishpokhes un fertsik ferd, [Rayispolkom iz shtark tsufridn]
Forty families and forty horses, [A reginal executive committee is very happy]. Yiddish song about a collective farm’s family contract. Performed by Kviat [male voice]. Recorded in Kalinindorf on [January 10, 1936]. Cylinder # 940/2.

14.Balagole (Epelbaum) 2:04
A horse-cab driver (from Mikhail Epelbaum’s repertoire). Performed by Kvyat [male voice]. Recorded in Kalinindorf on [January 10, 1936]. Cylinder # 940/3.

15.Shviger, a gut helf aykh, [tsi di shnur gefelt aykh]. (Lyondre) 1:35
Mother-in-law, a good day to you, [do you like your daughter-in-law]. Oliandra dance. Wedding song in a form of an instrumental prelude and dialog between two mothers-in-law. The instrumental prelude is presented in the voice rendition. Instrumental and vocal parts follow a character and rhythm of the Moldavian dance Oliandra. Performed by Azriel Kanyevsky, 64, collective farm worker. Recorded in Sholem-Aleykhem, collective farm “Sickle and Hammer”, in January 1936. Cylinder # 947/1.

16.Oy vey, mame, vos zol ikh den ton 0:40
Oy vey, mother, what shall I do. Song of a young woman about her mother-in-law. Performed by Marta Ber, 17, German, collective farm worker. Recorded in Sholem Aleykhem, collective farm “Pioneer”, in January 1936. Cylinder # 947/3.

17.Shpilt zhe mir a nayem sher, [vos iz aroysgekumen] 0:31
Play me a new sher [that has just come out]. A dance song. Performed by [Nitikman], a first-year student of an agricultural vocational school. Recorded in L’vovo in January 1936. Cylinder # 951/4.

18. Oy, maty umerla, a bat’ko oslip, [oy, lomir nor batrakhtn di verter gants git]
Oh, mother died, and father lost his sight, [oh, let’s think about these words rather seriously]. A mixed-language song of an orphan. Parallel text in Ukrainian and Yiddish. Performed by Liza Ostrovski. Recorded in Novozlatopol’ on June 30, 1937. Cylinder # 979/2.
19. Got hot bashafn himl un erd. [Finem sheynem korn aroys iz a shener boym aroys.]
God created heaven and earth. [From a beautiful seed a beautiful tree has emerged.] A wedding song. Performed by Liza Ostrovski. Recorded in Novozlatopol’ on June 30, 1937. Cylinder # 979/3.
20.Mazl-tov! 0:15
Congratulations! A wedding song to wish the couple well. Performed by Liza Ostrovski. Recorded in Novozlatopol’ on June 30, 1937. Cyl. # 979/4.

21.Mazl-tov, oy, mazl-tov, mazl-tov undz ale 0:59
Mazl-tov, oy, mazl-tov, congratulations to all of us. A wedding song to congratulate the bride and groom and wish them well. Performed by Avrom Khodes and Klara Zuskina. Recorded in Novozlatopol on June 30, 1937. Cylinder # 980/1.

22. A shtekele. [N’az a yingele zogt an aleph, vos iz der taytsh fun aleph.]
A little stick [When a young boy pronounces aleph, what does aleph mean.] A didactic song aimed at assisting a child with learning the Hebrew alphabet. Performed by Klara Zuskina. Recorded in Novozlatopol on June 30, 1937. Cylinder # 980/2.

23. Me nemt a yidishe shtub, [un me rayst di mezuzes arop] 0:57
One enters the Jewish home, [and tears off the mezuzahs]. Song about a pogrom in the shtetl. Performed by Motl Boriskovski, 37, who lived in Novodarovka. Recorded in Novozlatopol on July 3, 1937. Cylinder # 981/2.

24.Tsum rebn vel ikh forn, [un ikh vel im dertseyln] 1:06
I will go to the Rabbi, [and I will tell him]. A humorous anti-Hasidic song-parody. Performed by Motl Boriskovski, 37, who lived in Novodarovka. Recorded in Novozlatopol on July 3, 1937. Cylinder # 981/3.
Dobranitsh (Pedotser) 2:39
25.Freylekhs 0:47
A klezmer tune recorded from voice. Performed by Itsik Frumin, 47, and Zina Brukman, 30, collective farm workers. Recorded in Novozlatopol on July 3, 1937. Cylinder # 981/4.

26. Brider, nit shloft, [mir zaynen geshtrofn] 0:42
Brothers, don’t sleep, [we are being punished]. A song about military draft call into the Czar’s army. Performed by Shaya Kormalyov, 60. Recorded in Novodarovka on July 3, 1937. Cylinder # 982/2.

27.Zay gezunt, mayn oyg fun kop, [forn forstu fun mir avek] 0:42
Farewell, my darling (“an eye of my head”), [you are leaving me]. Love song about separation. Performed by Hinda Azriel. Recorded in Novodarovka on July 3, 1937. Cylinder # 982/4.

28.Zhok, an alter tants, “A gazlen” 0:54
Zhok, an old dance, “A robber”. A klezmer tune recorded from voice. Performed by Ginda Azriel and Zina Brukman, 30, collective farm workers. Recorded in Novodarovka on July 3, 1937. Cylinder # 983/2.

29. Sher 1:00
A klezmer dance melody recorded from voice. Performed by Ginda Azriel and Zina Brukman, 30, collective farm workers. Recorded in Novodarovka on July 3, 1937. Cylinder # 983/3.
30. Reyen un reyen, tsiyen zikh lang, [khromtshen di shneyen, fleylekh in gang]
Rows are stretching out, [the snow is crunching, joy in the ranks]. Children’s pioneer song. Performed by Moris Shnayder, director of the school in Novozlatopol. The performer composed a melody of the song. Recorded in Novodarovka on July 3, 1937. Cylinder # 984/1.

31.Freylekhs 1:26
A klezmer dance melody recorded from voice. Performed by Itsik Frumkin, 48. Recorded in Novodarovka on July 3, 1937. Cylinder # 984/2.

32. Dos pastekhl 1:02
The little shepherd. Kevokoras royey edroy, [hob ikh amol gepashet mayne shof]. Like a shepherd who tends his sheep, [Once I shepherded my sheep]. Macaronic song with some parallel text in Hebrew, Yiddish and Ukrainian that utilizes melody and text from “Unetaneh Tokef” (‘Let us speak of the awesomeness of that day”) from Rosh ha-Shanah and Yom Kippur service. Performed by Naftoli Azriel and Zina Brikman, 30, collective farm workers. Zina Brikman joins Azriel Naftoli at the end of the performance. Recorded in Novodarovka on July 3, 1937. Cylinder # 984/3.

33.A trover, a trover, a trover oyf mayn hartsn 1:00
A sorrow in my heart. Song about unhappy love. Performed by Yeva Drutman, workwoman. Recorded in Dzhelal on [July 13, 1937]. Cylinder # 994/1.

34.Mit lider, mit gezangen tsum poyezd tsugegangen 1:35
With songs, with singing, [we] came to the train. Song about military draft. Performed by Hersh Shmulevitsh Politshuk. Recorded in Dzhelal on [July 13, 1937]. Cylinder # 994/2.

35.Zint ikh bin aroys fun mayn muters vigele, [a volkn, a shvartser hot mayn himl tsugedekt]
Since I had been out of my mother’s cradle, a black cloud covered my heaven. A beggar’s song. Performed by Genya Kuritskaya. Recorded in Dzhelal on [July 13, 1937]. Cylinder # 994/3.

36. Dos lid fun der alter neshome 1:42
A song of the old soul. Shlofn zey ale nokh a halber nakht. Everybody is sleeping after midnight. A song about death. Performed by Ruvn Grobak, 54, who came from Bershad in 1931. The performer heard the song in Kishenev in the late 1880s. Recorded in Dzhelal, at the collective farm “Sotsgevet” (“Socialist competition”) on July 17, 1937. Cylinder # 996/1.

37. Fraytik tsunakht arum zeks dem zeyger, [ven me tut dos zekstn likht bentshn]
Friday night around six o’clock, [when it’s time to bless the sixth candle]. A song about death. Performed by Khanah Loza, 20. The performer heard the song in Bershad in 1928 when a daughter of local shames died. Recorded in Dzhelal, at the collective farm “Sotsgevet” (“Socialist competition”) on July 17, 1937. Cylinder # 996/2.

38. Kidush. Smotri, meronen, verabanan veraboysay, [S’iz amol geven tsvey malkhusim]
Kiddush. Attention, teachers and wise men, my rabbis, [once there were two kingdoms]. Children’s song based on the phrase from blessing over wine during the Kiddush or sanctification of Holy days. Performed by Ruvn Grobak, 54. Recorded in Dzhelal, at the collective farm “Sotsgevet” (“Socialist competition”) on July 18, 1937. Cylinder # 997/3.

39. Alef-beys 0:39
Alphabet. Alef makht: Umnyi tsholovik stsho z tshuzhoho vozu bere, na svii klade; beys: baba z voza, konyam lehtshe . Aleph makes the sound of: A smart man takes from someone’s cart and puts into his; beys: a woman off the cart, easier on the horses. Yiddish Ukrainian alphabet song in the form of liturgical cantillation. Every letter of Yiddish alphabet relates to a short Ukrainian proverb that starts with the same letter. Performed by Avrom Alpert. Recorded in Dzhelal, at the collective farm “Sotsgevet” (“Socialist competition”) on July 18, 1937. Cylinder # 997/4.

40. Varnitshkes hobn mir gegesn, [fartrinken hobn mir mit vayn] 0:47
We were eating varnichkes, [washing them down with wine]. Love song. Performed by Etl Groysfirer, 24. Recorded in Dzhelal, at the collective farm “Sotsgevet” (“Socialist competition”) on July 18, 1937. Cylinder # 997/5.

41. Vypiem, kume, vupiem tut, [na tom svete ne dadut] 0:52
Let’s drink, godfather, here, [we won’t get this in the afterlife]. A mixed-language drinking song (parallel text in Ukrainian and Yiddish). Performed by Galkin (male voice). Recorded in Crimea in July 1937. Cylinder # 998/3.

42. Shpilt-zhe mir, klezmorimlekh, [shpilt-zhe mir a freylekhkayt] 1:19
Play for me, little klezmers, [play for me a joyful thing]. Wedding song performed by a bride’s mother. Performed by Yeva Kheyfets, 34 [or 54?], collective farm worker, who moved to Crimea from Kopys, Belarus, in 1926. Recorded at the collective farm “Vintshevski”, Fraydorf district, on July 21, 1937. Cylinder # 999/2.

43. In vald vakst an epele, [iz zi gor a grininke] 1:05
A little apple is growing in the forest, [it is very green]. Song of Performed by Yeva Kheyfets, 34 [or 54?], collective farm worker,who moved to Crimea from Kopys, Belarus, in 1926. Recorded at the collective farm “Vintshevski”, Fraydorf district, on July 21, 1937. Cylinder # 999/3.

44. A khazn a nar 3:03
A silly cantor. S’iz gekumen in a kleyn shtetele a khazn. A cantor has come in a little town. A humorous song that imitates the ornate style of cantorial singing. Performed by Vladimir Brodsky, chairman of the reginal executive committee, originally from Kremenets. Recorded at the collective farm “Vintshevski”, Fraydorf district, on July 29, 1937. Cylinder # 1012.

45.Veyn nit, mame, nit veyn, [ikh vel dikh nit fargesn] 2:01
Don’t cry, mother, don’t cry, [I won’t forget you]. Song of an orphan addressing the dead mother. Performed by Riva Pokras, teacher. Recorded in Kalinindorf in 1937. Cylinder # 1022/1.

46.Shoyn opgelebt 80 yor, [vi shnel es iz dos alts farfloygn]1:34
I have lived 80 years, [how fast this time has gone]. Song of a beggar. Performed by Riva Pokras, teacher. Recorded in Kalinindorf in 1937. Cylinder # 1022/2.

47.Purim-lid 0:43
Purim song. Vi es kumt erev Purim, [geyen arum di vayber in eyne yesurim]. On the eve of Purim, [all women walk around in their sufferings]. Purim song about burnt homentashn. Perfomed by Yitskhak-Avrom Rukman, 45. The performer heard the song from his mother Maryasa Pukman. Recorded in Kalinindorf on October 21, 1938. Cylinder # 1023/2.

48.Di fayerdike libe, [zi tut in maynem hartsn brenen] 0:41
The fiery love, [it is burning in my heart]. Love song about a decision to get married against parents’ will. Perfomed by Yitskhak-Avrom Rukman, 45. Recorded in Kalinindorf on October 21, 1938. Cylinder # 1023/3.

49.Sher 0:49
A klezmer dance melody recorded from voice. Perfomed by Yitskhak-Avrom Rukman, 45. Recorded in Kalinindorf on October 21, 1938. Cylinder # 1023/4.

50.Der emes 1:36
The true. Hert a maysele aza, [hert mit noz un oygn]. Hear this little story, [hear with nose and eyes]. Children’s mishmash song. Performed by Grish Shpolyansky. Recorded at the collective farm “Royter ayngeshteygener” (“The Red Resolute One”), Kalinindorf district, in October 1938. Cylinder # 1025/1.

51.Ikh bin a rebe, [un veyst ir, vos ikh hob] 2:22
I am a Rabbi, [and you know what I have]. Anti-religious parody song about Rabbi and his three daughters. Performed by Mani Shor. Recorded at the collective farm “Arbet” (“Work”), the Molotov village council, Kalinindorf district, on October 24, 1938. Cylinder # 1036/2.

52.Lid vegn a beyzer shviger 1:17
Song about angry mother-in-law. Gey ikh povolye, [zogt zi az ikh krikh]. If I’m walking slowly, she said that I’m creeping. Performed by Basya Bolotner, 32, leader of the garden team. Recorded in Ingulets, collective farm “Nadezhda” (“Hope”) on May 24, 1939. Cylinder # 1073/1.

53.Kale bazetsn 4:49
Seating the bride. Badkhon’s rhymes for the central component of the wedding ceremony “Seating the bride” (in this case, the bride is an orphan). Performed by Zalman Kaplin, 52, clarinetist. The performer came from the klezmer family, could read music. His father was a violinist, brother played a trombone, and grandfather was a badkhon. His father and he himself learned the rhymes after the grandfather. Recorded in Ingulets on May 24, 1939. Cylinder # 1074.

54.Der shvartser volkn hot dem himl batsoygn, [un di khmare, zi tut zikh farshpreytn]
A black cloud covered the sky, [and the cloud, it spread over]. Love song. Performed by Basya Bolotner, 32, leader of the garden team. Recorded in Ingulets, collective farm “Nadezhda” (“Hope”) on May 25, 1939. Cylinder # 1077/1.

55.Nokh dray a zeyger leyg ikh zikh shlofn [mit mayne hentelekh tsukopn]
After three o’clock at night I’m going to bed, [and place my hands under the pillow]. A pre-wedding riddle song. Performed by Basya Bolotner, 32, leader of the garden team. Recorded in Ingulets, collective farm “Nadezhda” (“Hope”) on May 25, 1939. Cylinder # 1077/2.

56.In maynem hartsn fil ikh a vund, [az ikh darf dir zogn zay gezunt] 0:56
I feel pain in my heart, [when I need to say farewell to you]. Love song in the form of dialog (farewell motive). Performed by Zalmen Ber Rivkin. Recorded in Novovitebsk on May 29, 1939. Cylinder # 1079/2.

57.Geven amol a khasene, [bin ikh geven freylekh] 0:51
Once there was a wedding, [I was rejoicing]. A humorous song. Performed by Riva Glants, 36. Recorded in Novovitebsk on May 29, 1939. Cylinder # 1079/4.